Sudan, the largest country in Africa, means “the land of the blacks”. It had a population of about 42,000,000 people. The capital city of Sudan was Khartoum which means the “confluence of the two Niles, the blue and white”. Man has lived in the Sudan for about ten millions years, and Sudan is believed to be the cradle of civilization, having had kingdoms such as Nubia, Napata, and Merowe. It is the blessed land of Kush. South Sudan exists as a land of diversity. The majority of the population in the North is Arab and Muslims, while the African Christians and animists live in the South.
During the partitioning and scrambling for Africa, Sudan became a colony of Great Britain. Many Sudanese kingdoms were converted to Christianity until the spread of Islam in the 17th century. On January 19, 1899, Britain and Egypt signed an agreement to administer Sudan jointly. By 1945, Sudanese nationalists formed opposition parties to British and Egyptians rule. On February 12, 1953, Britain and Egypt signed an accord to end their rule in Sudan.
In 1955, just one year prior to its independence, South Sudanese heard a rumor that political power was going to be concentrated in the hands of the people in the North. Under the leadership of Joseph Lagu and William Deng Nhial, they formed a revolution called Anyanya , a Shiluk word for a poison. Shiluk is a river lake Nilotic tribe in South Sudan. Following the creation of the Anyanya, the country became chaotic and unrest everywhere. Anyanya’s motto was equality for all Sudanese regardless of religion and race. On January 1, 1956, Sudan became an independent state, but the civil war between the South and the North continued for another 16 years. In 1972, Anyanya’s demand was answered with Addis Ababa agreement. The government and the rebel signed to unified and work together for the welfare of the people of Sudan. Just months later, the Anyanya leader William Deng Nhial was assassinated and the agreement was dishonored. The pain intensified in the heart of Southern Sudanese citizens and politicians.
On May 16, 1983, the Southern Sudanese, who are a majority Christian and mainly indigenous African, revolted against the domination, the enslavement, the torture chambers, the conversion to Islam the Sharia-law, and the cruelty of the Islamic national government, and formed the Sudan People Liberation Movement “SPLM” under the leadership of Dr John Garang De Mabior. This resulted in a 21 year civil war that has killed 2 millions people and displaced almost 10 millions others. Sudan’s second civil war officially ended In January 2005 when the government of Sudan and the Sudan People Liberation Movement signed the comprehensive peace agreement. But despite the political autonomy that Southern Sudan gained from the nearly 22-year conflict, unrest continues with in the form of slavery, rape, and the displacement of its citizens. Now this conflict is escalating in the Darfur region of Africa’s largest nation. What is happening in Darfur is similar to what happened in Southern Sudan during the civil war. Women, children, and elderly suffer terribly from the Khartoum government. Many Arabs in Sudan do not accept Africans as leaders, so the country’s central government ruled by Arab Muslims has marginalized non-Arab Africans who seek proportionate representation in leadership. As the Southern State continues fighting to uphold its peace package, the five-year military conflict over similar disenfranchisement in Darfur rages and has brought genocide to the region of western Sudan.
The Republic of South Sudan (ROSS)
In the comprehensive peace agreement of 2005 between the South and the North, southern Sudanese were granted the right to self-determination. The self-determination protocol gave Southern Sudanese a chance to vote for a united Sudan or a secession to create a separate South Sudan. On January 9th, 2011, South Sudanese voted worldwide in a referendum. The result was 98.99% for a secession.
On July 9th, the Republic of South Sudan was born. It was welcomed and recognized by the international community and the United Nations. It’s the 193rd nation of the world.
Bor, South Sudan
Bor is a Capital city of Jonglei State, South Sudan. It is located off the east Bank of the River Nile. The city is 200 kilometers from Juba, the capital of the Republic of South Sudan. Jonglei State borders
Ethiopia to the East, Kenya and Uganda to the south, Upper Nile State to the north, Western Upper Nile State to the northwest, Lakes State to the west, Eastern Equatoria State to the southeast, and Central Equatoria to the southwest. It’s the largest city in South Sudan.
Bor has significant historical attachments to the people of South Sudan and Sudan in general. It was in Malek, 19 km south of Bor that the first Christian mission was established by Archibald Shaw in 1905 and thereafter, Malek Bible College was founded. On May 16, 1983 in Bor, Kerubino Kwanyin Bol, a Lt. Col. In the Sudanese army led a mutiny architected by the late Dr. John Garang De Mabior, the former Sudanese Vice president, President of Southern Sudan, and commander in chief of Sudan People Liberation Movement and army SPLM/A.
Southeastern Dinka, primarily known as Dinka Bor, occupies the region around the city. The Dinka Bor is made up of Gok, Athooc, Twic, Nyarweng, and Hol. Dinka Bor has three counties; Bor County, Twic East County, and Duk County. These three counties are further subdivided into twelve districts from Kolnyang in the South to Poktap in the far north. It was in Bor that some Southern Sudan prominent politicians such as Abel Alier, late Dr. John Garang, late Martin Majier Gai, and late Arok Thon Arok originated.